Tuesday 30 September 2014

Sailboat Steering on Passage Without a Rudder

For a cruising sailor on passage somewhere mid ocean, one of the worst nightmares visited on is the horror of losing the ships rudder, thereby wallowing helplessly at the whim of the ocean until a jury rudder can be rigged and deployed. 

The majority of voyagers will have planned this out before leaving port and have a rudder blade pre cut from marine ply or similar material and various other boat bits nominated so that a jury can be assembled on board with the minimum of difficulty and stress.

Another option if a drogue is on board, is to use it to steer the boat. Here is a detailed explanation of extensive trials carried out by Michael Keyworth in his Swan 44 off Newport, Rhode Island:

'The purpose of the tests was to determine the best method and equipment to effectively steer the vessel to a safe port in the event of catastrophic rudder failure. The goal was to utilize the equipment normally taken on the vessel on offshore passages or races. The overriding premise was; utilization of an efficient and controllable object to create drag and transmit to directional stability which results in the desired directional stability. It was my view that a drogue might be used to exert the appropriate drag. I further felt that a small drogue might provide the needed drag but not significantly impede the speed of the vessel.

Chasseur steering with drogue
 Chasseur has been modified in the following relevant ways; the rudder skeg was removed and replaced with a modern spade rudder which is carbon fiber with a Carbon fiber shaft, the keel has been modified to a modern shape fin with a shoe, the mast is carbon fiber and six feet taller than original. For the purposes of the tests, the rudder was removed and the rudder port was blocked off. 

I was familiar with and had onboard Chasseur a 'Galerider' made by Hathaway, Reiser and Raymond of Stamford, Connecticut. I contacted Wes Oliver at Hathaway and he arranged to make several prototype drogues for the tests. We were equipped with: a 12inch diameter drogue with a three part bridle, a 12inch diameter drogue with a four part bridle, a 18 inch diameter drogue with a four part bridle, a 30 inch drogue with a four part bridle and a 36 inch drogue with a four part bridle. 

The purpose of the test was to establish whether direction could be controlled under the following 'underway' conditions using any of the drogues supplied: 

With sail trim alone 
Motoring using a drogue 
Sailing upwind using a drogue 
Sailing downwind using a drogue 
Motorsailing using a drogue 
Being towed using a drogue 

Size of drogue proved to be very important. The findings were definitive: 

- The two 12- inch drogues provided no directional stability. 

- The 18- inch drogue provided marginal control in winds under 10 knots 

- The 30- inch drogue was very effective in all conditions that were tested and resulted in approximately one knot reduction in boat speed. In wind conditions over 20 knots of windspeed a chain pennant needed to be added to reduce cavitation. 

- The 36- inch drogue worked similarly to the 30 inch drogue but affected boat speed by approximately1½ knots. 


Two spinnaker sheets were used. I believe that spinnaker sheets are appropriate as they are generally sized based on length of boat. The sheets were led as two sides of a bridle (port and starboard) from amidships snatch blocks, thru amidships chock or similar and clipped into the swivel at the lead for the drogue. The tails were lead aft to the primaries in the cockpit. It is important to rig this so as to provoke the least amount of chafe as these lines will become your steering cables. We found that the leads need to be led to the axis of the keel as the boat will rotate on the keel. This point is probably somewhere near amidships. 

Note: The afterguy block may be ideal for the bridle lead. 

Some prior guidance suggested that a lead to the quarters of the transom is the best. Our findings are that this restricts the transom from swinging, therefore preventing the desired change in course. 

During rough and/or windy conditions it may be necessary to add weight to the drogue to keep it from cavitating. Using the concept of being limited to equipment that is already on board, we were able to use various lengths of chain attached to the swivel at the lead for the drogue. At the other end we effectively used a spare swivel shackle and attached one end to the forward end of chain and the other to the bridle from the boat. It is important to have swivels at both ends as the drogue will tend to rotate as it is pulled along. The bridle may get twisted up but this does not seem to affect the control. During our tests the length of 'scope' of the bridle/drogue did not seem important. The nominal distance aft from the transom varied from 50 feet to 120 feet. It may be necessary to add scope in extreme conditions. I found that reference of the drogues position was valuable information. I whipped colored marks at 10 foot intervals on both spin sheet/bridle which gave a quick reference; this could be done with tape or magic marker. 


Controlling direction with sail trim alone: Not Possible!!! 

Control direction while motoring using a drogue- This is the easiest scenario. A wide range of control is available. This can be done with only one person, easily. While testing we were able to execute multiple 360 degree turns with full control. Doing 5.5 knots a full 360 can be executed in 4-4 ½ boat lengths. While motoring, adjustments of 2-3 inches results in 5-10 degree course change. 

Controlling direction while sailing upwind using a drogue- The same principals apply except that there needs to be cooperation between the sail trimmers and the 'helmsperson' (bridle trimmer). In this scenario the main must be up, even if reefed, the jib may be overlapping, but more control may be achieved with a non-overlapping jib. Tacking takes coordination but, once you get the hang of it, no problem-- traveler up, back the jib and come on to the new tack. We were able to achieve 30-35 degrees apparent sail angle. In large seas wider angles should be expected. 

Controlling direction while sailing downwind using a drogue: When the wind is aft of 90 degrees apparent it is necessary to take the mainsail down and sail under Jib alone. It will be necessary to have an attentive jib trimmer in addition to a helmsperson on the drogue controls. The size of the jib will have to be factored in based on wind and sea conditions. We also found that the deeper the angle the harder it was to have fine control of direction. Jibing is pretty straightforward by easing the jib and rotating the drogue. 

Controlling direction while motorsailing using a drogue- The same principals apply as in sections on upwind and downwind sailing. 

Controlling direction while being towed using a drogue- This test, I felt was important because most successful results of rudder loss has a component of a tow of great and small distances to a safe harbor. In this situation we were towed by a 27’ Protector with two 250 HP outboards. A towing bridle was made up on Chasseur and attached to the tow line from the Protector. At three Knots the bow was swinging from port to starboard to the end of the tether. At four knots it was very difficult to stand on the foredeck. We deployed the 30 inch drogue as rigged for sailing and motoring. The results were immediate. Towing at seven knots was comfortable and straight, requiring very little input from the helmsperson. 

This is an important finding as it suggests that a drogue should be carried at all times so that assistance can be rendered safely, even inshore. 

Additional Findings/ FAQs 

If you lose your rudder- first confirm that the rudder port is not leaking- if it is you must first deal with the flooding issue. Once the flooding issue is stabilized move on to the next step of getting home or assistance. 

Communicate with Race Officials if you are racing and/or with those onshore who will worry about your situation. 

Communicate with vessels nearby if in need of immediate help away from a lee shore or collision avoidance in shipping lanes. 

Choose your safe harbor destination based on wind direction predictions, ease of access, proximity, repair facilities, etc. Do not feel that you need to end at the original destination port. 

If you lose your rudder, it is likely that you either hit a submerged object or that the conditions were severe. Remember that you have time. Relax, storms don’t usually last more than a couple of days. Deploy your drogue or sea anchor and get some rest. 

Each time that we went testing we learned something new. Don’t be afraid to try something that you think might help, i.e. longer scope, move lead of bridle forward or aft, larger/smaller jib, reef/no reef, etc. 

An unanswered question is how a drogue will work with different types/styles and underbodies than Chasseur. My personal view is that a drogue will be an effective tool to have on any type of boat and its deployment can be adapted to the type of vessel that uses it. 

Offshore you will have room to maneuver. Take your time and don’t stress about steering an accurate course. 

The engine is your friend. You will find that using engine power will provide the greatest degree of control- speed and direction. Use the engine to deploy sails, to get rest, or to retrieve the drogue- retrieval is easiest when the boat is stopped. Be careful to not tangle the bridle in the prop. This was never a problem during our trials. This was probably because; towards the end of trials we used a five foot chain pennant to help the drogue from cavitating. The chain component is an important one. I chose the use of chain to weight the drogue because ISAF Offshore Prescriptions require that an anchor with appropriate ground tackle be carried, so it need not be carried as additional gear. Others venturing offshore tend to take ample ground tackle to accommodate the use for other purposes. On a practical matter, I think that it makes sense to have different lengths of chain for required circumstances. It also makes sense that a longer chain can be made shorter using the rig cut away tools as required by the rule. A shorter chain can be made longer using shackles to join shorter lengths. 

How heavy is the Galerider? A standard 30- inch drogue weighs in at nine pounds and is stored in a bag that is 15 inches in diameter and five inches thick. The standard 36- inch drogue weighs 13.2 pounds and stores in a bag that is 18 inches in diameter and four inches thick. 

One of the difficulties that you will face to determine where the helmsperson is stationed and has access to heading or a compass. Something that you may want to consider, as you equip for an offshore passage is the purchase of a backup compass which can be remotely mounted. Boats equipped with modern electronic packages may have the option of display of heading for both helmsperson and trimmer/s. 

It would be prudent for any offshore sailor to practice the deployment of a drogue for speed reduction sailing downwind in large seas and to rig and use as a means of steering. This would help to identify the gear necessary to deploy and provide a ready plan to implement if necessary. 

The transition from drogue to drogue steering or vise versa may be easier than you think. 

A trick that we learned is that you can cleat off one of the bridle lines and have control with the other. If you were to cleat off the port bridle line a turn to port would result from easing the starboard bridle and a subsequent change to starboard would result from trimming the starboard bridle. This lazy man’s approach gives the helmsperson more flexibility and physical relief. 

What I learned from the extensive testing is that you can achieve a great deal of control using a drogue. I would bet that if any boat is able to sail 100+ miles without a rudder to a safe port, the crew will want to take a victory lap around the harbor to 'show off' the newfound skill and seamanship ability. 

One last thought. Having sailed over 150,000 miles at sea I have seen many things and have been able to overcome all sorts of adverse conditions, I still have many concerns and reservations. One concern is that of rudder loss and how to deal with that possibility. This test should help all who go to sea with that possibility. The other concern that haunts me each time I go to sea is the amount of floating debris and other objects that may affect the ability of even the most seamanlike sailor to safely passage from place to place. The possibility of being holed or sunk from collisions with floating debris is real. Most of the stories I have heard about boats at sea that have become rudderless have resulted in the abandonment of those vessels. These abandoned vessels represent a threat to those fellow sailors who put to sea and put them unnecessarily at risk.'

Michael has to be congratulated on carrying out these tests and reproducing the in depth and detailed data for all cruising sailors.  

The first video has been created by Michael and shows the drogue deployed from his 44ft Swan. This is valuable as even today the majority of cruising boats are in 40 - 45ft/13 -15mtre range. The video goes on to show how to sail up wind and also how the drogue can be used for a yacht being towed without a rudder.

You will of course note that there will be no more sailing on auto pilot, the boat having to be 'helmed' manually 24/7 until arrival at the next port and hopefully a yard whereby repairs can be affected.

The second video also shows sailing with a drogue on smaller sailboat where the crew can use their weight to trim. It also shows a jury rudder using a spinnaker pole as a tiller - this would not be practical on a larger boat with much longer poles. 

This then raises the question of which method of the two, when steering over long periods, is the less stressful and tiring. A jury rudder can be lashed and the drogue can be cleated off, but which one would need more hands on attention is debatable. Both methods have points in favour and against. However, if either method is employed, and if it means getting boat and crew safely into port, then it would have to be deemed  as being successful. This is worth considering and discussing. 

Article, images and videos courtesy Michael Keyworth, Sail-world.com and YouTube

You can read much more about cruising and passagemaking in my book 'Sailing Adventures in Paradise' downloadable from my website http://www.sailboat2adventure.com/    


Monday 15 September 2014

TSS Earnslaw Queenstown Engine Room Example for Cruising Sailors

Just returned from a few days in Queenstown, New Zealand, where they refer to themselves as 'The Adventure Capital of the World'. For a smallish tourist town with a population of only 25,000 approx. they certainly boast a myriad of, not only outdoor, but extreme outdoor activities so their claim is not without substance. 

In one of the most beautiful settings in the world, it is seething with folks young and old from all corners of the globe. they want to sample and experience their own personal adventures, be it the usual tourist sightseeing tours or the extreme adventure variety. These range from skiing, snowboarding, bungy jumping ( several variations), white water rafting, para jumping off the mountain, Jet boating in the famous Shotover River, rock climbing, abseiling, cable slip riding, tandem sky diving and others that will thrill the blood of folks of all ages.

You may be wondering what this has to do with sailboat cruising? Not a lot really except that there is one cruise that I took that illustrates most clearly the benefits of well maintained machinery and in particular, engines.

TSS Earnslaw docking at Walter Peak for return to Queenstown
The TSS Earnslaw cruise across the lake to Walter Peak farm station, on a fine sunny day is a delight. You are carried across on the steamship TSS Earnslaw, a one hundred and two year old steamer. She is immaculately maintained with all woodwork, bright work and brass fittings gleaming.
Approaching Walter Peak farmstead
She was built in Dunedin, one hundred and twenty kilometres eastward on the east coast of the South Island. She was constructed in parts, assembled in Dunedin, disassembled and trained in pieces to Kingston at the southern end of the lake and launched there in 1912. Quite some feat back then?
Here are her specifications:
Type:     Siemens Martin Steel hulled twin screw steamer with Kauri decking.
Naval Architect:     Hugh McRae of the New Zealand Government Railways Department, Dunedin.
Builders:     John McGregor and Company Ltd., Dunedin.
Displacement:     329.55 gross registered tons, 155.43 net.
Registered Length:     165 feet, 7 inches or 50.47 metres.
Length overall:     168 feet   51.2 metres.
Beam:     24 feet or 7.315 metres.
Depth:     9 feet, 6 inches.
Draught:     6.6 feet.
Propulsion:     Twin coal fired triple expansion, jet condensing vertical marine engines producing 500 horsepower at 145 r.p.m.; cylinder diameters, 13 inches (high pressure), 22 inches (intermediate), 34 inches (low pressure); cylinder stroke, 18 inches.
Boilers:     Two locomotive-type boilers with double safety valves; grate area, 48 sq. ft.; heating surfaces, l98 sq. ft. (firebox), 1,420 sq. ft. (tubes); working pressure, 180 lb. per sq. in. (reduced to 160 lb. in 1961); steam steering.
Engine room well
Speed (1912):     13 knots normal, 16 knots under forced draught 19 knots maximum.
Average cruising speed:     12 knots (120 rpm at 160 lb. psi).
Bunker capacity:     initially 12 tons, later expanded to 14 tons.
Coal consumption at cruising speed: one tonne per hour.
Passenger capacity:     maximum, 1,035; cargo capacity, 100 tons (or 1,500 sheep, or 200 bales of wool, or 70 head of cattle).
Ship's company     11.
Port of registry:     Dunedin.
Bunch of rope in foc'sle museum

Today she is licensed to carry only 389 passengers/tourists and no sheep or cattle!

From the height of one of the surrounding local peaks she appears to be crawling across the lake like a small black beetle, but in fact she is cruising along at a handsome 12 knots! 
Looking astern toward Queenstown with NZ ensign

Being coal fuelled she has two doors per engine through which the stoker manually shovels one ton of coal per hour ( you can see that in the video). Hot work down their where the temperature is forty degrees Celcius!

In these environmentally conscious times she even has a large vacuum device built in to suck up the coal dust and noxious fumes from combustion.

The engine room itself is a marvel of well oiled, meticulously maintained and highly polished, smoothly working and visible engines. Noisy, but not excessively so, and as you listen you can hear in the rumbling rhythm that everything is in concert with no strange interruptions to the flow of sound.

Here we come to the point of this post. All cruising sailboats have a motor, which most of us wish only to turn on for leaving and entering port, motoring in a prolonged calm or in an emergency. However, when we go to turn the key or press the button we want to know that she is going to leap into life and perform to our requirement at that time.......and every time!

Now, there's a windlass!
To achieve this end your engine has to be maintained regularly with plenty of TLC. Because most of us are not engineers, it is easy to overlook or put something off because we are perhaps not sure of the procedure.  This is a no no and as a responsible skipper it is our duty to make sure that we keep right on top of that part of our maintenance programme.

Foredeck winch
It is no good, following some kind of problem involving the motor, or even disaster say on a lee shore or port entry in a storm, saying.......'if only I had....'. In reality, over time, most of us become good engineers of certainly our own motors and motors in general. 

The TSS Earnslaw is a model to take example from. She still has her original engines and working today fourteen hours or so, they are running as smoothly as ever they were over one hundred years ago. 

Specifications courtesy NZ Maritime Museum and video courtesy youTube

You can read much more about sailboat cruising and the cruising lifestyle in my book 'Sailing Adventures in Paradise' downloadable from my websitehttp://www.sailboat2adventure.com