Thursday, 23 June 2011

Cruising Sailors and Ocean Plastics Garbage Disposal Update

All cruising sailors are very concerned at the huge amount of 'flotsam and Jetsam' to use the nautical term, of garbage mainly of plastic origin floating around and polluting the oceans of our planet. You have only to see footage of the recent result of the Japan Tsunami floating islands of detritius, one of which is sixty nautical miles in length, to understand the size of the problem.

These natural disasters will continue to occur and at this time there is not a lot we can do about them, however, as cruising sailors we can all do our bit when onshore and at sea to conserve this rubbish and dispose of it correctly. 

When cruising in the middle of the ocean on a beautiful day with soft breeze and surrounded by blue it is hard to see what damage an empty beer can or plastic bag dropped over the side can do and no responsible sailor today would ever think of doing it. You only have to watch the video below to see what very small but irresponsible actions can ultimately cause with trigger fish being netted hundreds of miles from their normal habitat and containing plastic pieces in their stomach.

Sailors for the Sea, a nonprofit organization that educates and engages the boating community in the worldwide protection of the oceans, has written a lot about plastics in the ocean - so-called 'islands of trash' float, trapping fish, choking birds, and growing larger with the passage of time. However, confusion remains, so here is an update from the Sea Education Association (SEA):

Despite widespread concurrence on the subject the confusion remains due to the fact that these gyres are not actually floating mats of garbage the size of entire states, an image fostered by some of the earlier, more publicized reports.

They are, rather, concentrations of surface and sub-surface floating debris at the convergence of ocean currents. But how much plastic is really there? Conflicting reports and opinions have made it difficult to get a secure handle on the magnitude of the problem.

Every year SEA sails the Atlantic, Pacific and Caribbean with upwards of 25 college students and 10 professional crew aboard the Corwith Cramer and the Robert C. Seamans. SEA Semester students combine an interdisciplinary academic program of oceanography, history, literature, marine policy and nautical science with a six week open ocean voyage.

For forty years and one million miles sailed, SEA has been the only program in the world to teach college students about the ocean in this way. From 1986 to 2008, in the Atlantic Ocean, over 4,887 individuals have participated in this study of ocean-bound plastics, collecting and cataloguing over 64,000 individuals pieces of plastic, most only millimeters in size. Through these efforts, SEA has amassed an 'unrivaled dataset' that helps describe the extent of this pollution, and can teach us about the fate of plastics in the ocean.

The following article from 'Sailors for the Sea' gives you an idea of the problem and what projects this organisation is engaged in:

So what did SEA find?

Over those 22 years, SEA conducted 6,136 surface plankton net tows on annually repeated cruise tracks throughout the North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea. Sixty-two percent of all plankton tows contained some amount of plastic, with the highest in a single 30-minute tow being 1069 individual pieces. To scale, that equals 580,000 pieces per square kilometer (about 360,000 per square mile). That sounds like a LOT of plastic, but many of these pieces are less than a millimeter thick. While it makes for a less thrilling visual, it does make for a more dire outlook for the ocean and its fauna. The data reported by SEA in Science only accounts for floating surface debris. It does not account for plastic that has sunk below e surface or to the sea floor, or been ingested by fish, mammals or birds. Over 22 years, that could be quite a lot of plastic.

To get a sense of how much plastic could be in the ocean far below the surface, where SEA's plankton nets could not get to them, try this exercise:

Find a plastic bottle (Poland Spring, Gatorade, etc.). Remove the cap, fill the bottle to the brim with water, and submerge in a tub or a bucket (make sure to get all the bubbles out). Does it sink or float? Now submerge the cap. Sink or float? If you were using a Poland Spring bottle, or another brand with a 1 recycling number stamped on the bottom, it should have sunk (this is one of the most dense plastics). The cap (probably made of less dense HDPE 2) should have floated. Now think about this: Every year between 30 and 50 BILLION plastic bottles are used in the U.S. alone. Of these, only about 12% get recycled. We don't know exactly how many of reach the ocean, but if you've ever seen a bottle lying on the ground and didn't pick it up, chances are, it's in the ocean now. 80% of all marine debris is thought to originate on land.

Gyre North Atlantic -  .. .  
But back to the Atlantic.

Compiling the data, SEA discovered that plastic does indeed accumulate in the North Atlantic Gyre (see image). Not surprisingly, the highest densities of plastic they collected are concentrated between 22 and 38 degrees latitude in an area also known as the Sargasso Sea (or the Bermuda Triangle).

Though this data set displays no significant increase in plastic accumulation between 1986 and 2008, it does show persistent high concentrations of plastic. During this time period globally, there is a very significant increase in the production and discarding of plastic; however data does not account, as we mentioned previously, for sinking, ingested plastics or plastic fragments smaller than 1/3 mm, the mesh size of the plankton net. Readers should also remember that these gyres are not firmly constrained sites, and that currents carry water and debris constantly throughout the interconnected ocean.

The ultimate message here is that plastic, once created, doesn't go away and a lot of it ends up in the ocean, swirling around for eternity, confusing fish and tainting our food supply.

So what can you do?

1. Reduce - Use less plastic! Give up straws, single-use bottles and disposable forks.
2. Reuse - Used some plastic? Save it, use it again!
3. Recycle - If your plastic is used up, make sure to recycle it properly. Find out if your town has single-stream or separated recycling and only recycle those items your local plant can handle.
4. Read more - Read the full SEA article in Science
5. Check out the more recent data collected in the Atlantic
6. Learn more about SEA and how you can support their work
7. Enroll in a semester at sea and help SEA continue their data collection, and see how they do collect data in the video below:

Article and images courtesy Sail-World and SEA, video courtesy YouTube

You can read more about conserving boat rubbish at sea whilst on passage in my ebook 'Voyage of the Little Ship Tere Moana' downloadable from my website


scarlet reynolds said...

I was browsing the internet for blogs that tackle about rubbish removal and your post caught my attention. I've tried to research on this matter and I'd like to share a very alarming news that I've read. It says that: "According to the U.S . Coast Guard, recreational boaters dump an average of more than one pound of trash into the ocean every time they go out. Trash is also dumped into the ocean by military, cruise and merchant ships. Merchant ships generate almost 90 percent of all wastes found in the world's oceans. Every day, the world's fleet discards 5.5 million containers, including plastics, into the sea. Not all marine debris is generated by boats and ships. Coastal sewage systems account for at least 1% of ocean debris." I guess we should act on this before the marine life could get extinct and damage. We should also consider that by taking actions on this garbage issue, we are preserving our environment for future generation.

Dumpster Rental NYC said...

I would have to agree with you Scarlet, its absolutely disgusting just how much of this is someone staring directly into the ocean and mindlessly tossing into it, despite the consequences.

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